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The use of enzymes in the pulp and paper industry was introduced in the 1986. However, their use has been relatively minor. This prospective study aims at enhancing the understanding of the most important advances regarding the use of enzymes in this industry and to identify the future trends of this technology. Information gathered from the Web of Science shows a growing number of papers published on this topic indicating an increased interest in this issue. A study on patents also displayed a high number documents related to this technology. Cellulase, xylanase, laccase and lipase are the most important enzymes that can be used in the pulp and paper processes. Furthermore, the key objectives of enzymes development have been in the bleaching boosting with xylanases and fiber modification with cellulases. The current and future trends on the development of enzymes are focused on increasing their thermostability and their alkalinity strength. Continue reading Technology Prospecting on Enzymes for the Pulp and Paper Industry
It has been suggested that an important transition in the long-run trajectory of nanotechnology development is a shift from passive to active nanostructures. Such a shift could present different or increased societal impacts and require new approaches for risk assessment. An active nanostructure ‘‘changes or evolves its state during its operation,’’ according to the National Science Foundation’s (2006) Active Nanostructures and Nanosystems grant solicitation. Continue reading Is there a shift to “active nanostructures”?
Nano-biomedical science (NBMS) is a promising area in the application of nanotechnology. This paper profiles a group of 21 leading scientists in nanobiomedicine based on high publication rate and high citations. Comparisons with other researchers indicate that the leaders publish more in high impact journals and collaborate more extensively (team science).
Research Question: Who are the most prolific authors, universities in this field? What are the research themes? Which are the most important journals/conferences? Are there any research gaps in this field? What are the emergent streams of research in this field