Brazilian agricultural biotechnology has seen great advances in recent decades, especially in the development of GM crops, including soybean, cotton, and maize, which has placed Brazil in second place since 2013 in the ranking of countries with the greatest GM-cultivated area. However, patenting these technologies is somewhat more restrictive in Brazil than in other countries, such as the USA and Japan, especially concerning isolated biological material from nature. Hence, the intellectual protection of crops in Brazil is encompassed by sui generis rights and/or the patenting of only the development process. Given the current scenario and the importance of biotechnology for the Brazilian agriculture sector, it is necessary to deeply study the patent system for recently developed technologies to identify opportunities for enterprises and national institutes to act in this area. The application of novel biotechnological strategies to agriculture will contribute to the expanding agriculture sector and become part of the solution to global challenges. Through this study, we can identify the major companies developing and protecting their agrobiotechnologies. Additionally, a more detailed analysis verifies that although there are some restrictions in Brazilian laws, GM patent applicants find ways to obtain intellectual protection for the tools they use in the development of GM crops, which include regulatory sequences, gene constructs and production methodologies. Mechanisms to stimulate investment in Brazilian research companies and public policies must be consolidated, allowing investment and public–private partnerships in this sector, with the aim of applying biotechnological knowledge and turn it into products demanded by society.
For Full-Text https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biori.2019.04.003
Author(s): L.H.M. Figueiredo, A.G. Vasconcellos, G.S. Prado, M.F. Grossi-de-Sa
Organization(s): EMBRAPA Genetic Resources and Biotechnology, National Institute of Industrial Property/INPI
Source: Biotechnology Research and Innovation
This paper describes a unique two-step methodology used to construct six linked bibliometric datasets covering the sequencing of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Homo sapiens, and Sus scrofa genomes. First, we retrieved all sequence submission data from the European Nucleotide Archive (ENA), including accession numbers associated with each species. Second, we used these accession numbers to construct queries to retrieve peer-reviewed scientific publications that first linked to these sequence lengths in the scientific literature. For each species, this resulted in two associated datasets: 1) A .csv file documenting the PMID of each article describing new sequences, all paper authors, all institutional affiliations of each author, countries of institution, year of first submission to the ENA, and the year of article publication, and 2) A .csv file documenting all institutions submitting to the ENA, number of nucleotides sequenced, number of submissions per institution in a given year, and years of submission to the database. In several upcoming publications, we utilise these datasets to understand how institutional collaboration shaped sequencing efforts, and to systematically identify important institutions and changes in network structures over time. This paper, therefore, should aid researchers who would like to use these data for future analyses by making the methodology that underpins it transparent. Further, by detailing our methodology, researchers may be able to utilise our approach to construct similar datasets in the future.
For full-text https://f1000research.com/articles/8-1200
Author(s): Mark Wong, Rhodri Leng
Organization(s): University of Glasgow, University of Edinburgh
In the last 40 years, the aeronautical industry has managed to move from a specialized sector to a worldwide leading industry. Companies, governments and associations all over the world acknowledge the importance of the aviation industry in supporting global development and the economy. However, aviation will be facing new challenges related to sustainability and performance in a technological environment in evolution. To succeed, the aeronautical industry must keep innovation as one of its main assets. It must master a wide range of technologies and then collaborate to integrate them into an aircraft design and development program. A collaborative approach to innovation is key to achieve these goals. The main purpose of this paper is to analyze the structure of technological innovation networks in the aviation industry and to characterize the
map of the “Aviation Technology Space”. Two different approaches and methods are used. In one approach, we performed a bibliometric network analysis of aviation research scientific publications using a keyword co-occurrence analysis method to map the aerospace collaboration structures. Complementarily, we performed a patent analysis to evaluate the innovation capacity of the aviation industry in the cutting-edge technologies previously identified. From the results of this analysis, the paper provides recommendations for future innovation and research policies to allow the sector to fulfill the demanding goals by the year 2050.
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Author(s): Rosa Maria Arnaldo Valdés, Serhat Burmaoglu, Vincenzo Tucci, Luiz Manuel Braga da Costa Campos, Lucia Mattera, Víctor Fernando Gomez Comendador
Organization(s): Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Katip Celebi University
Ethanol produced from lignocellulosic biomass of composition is not a new concept. However, the increase in the population and industrial activity in the world, the energy demand and environmental impacts brought to light the need for new energy sources. At the beginning of this new millennium, ethanol and biomass gained notoriety as sources that could sustainably complement the energy matrix and also to mitigate the impacts of fossil energy sources. There are different ways to produce ethanol from biomass, but the most studied technologies are those made through biotechnological routes. In view of the investments on development made over the years, this article aims at analyzing the generation of technologies in the main links of the second generation ethanol production chain through patent applications in order to identify trends that will guide the industry of this biofuel.
Full-text available http://www.revistageintec.net/index.php/revista/article/view/1193
Author(s): Luiz André F. Silva Schlittler, Adelaide Maria de Souza Antunes, Nei Pereira Junior
Organization(s): Faculdade SENAI CETIQT, Instituto Nacional da Propriedade Industrial (INPI), Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro
Source: Revista GEINTEC
Knowing the gear of the triple-helix is fundamental to analyze the impact of public policies in the scenario of a country, especially when the variables linked to innovation refer to the chronological production of the facts. In this perspective, an analysis was assembled from intentional samples per regions of Brazil linked to the engineering areas, identifying indices that could demonstrate this evolutionary line, highlighting mainly in their numbers, the quantitative of patents of engineering deposited with and without the relation university-enterprise partnership (EU), with state mapping of the federation, public and private investments in P&D, patents with their respective classifications and scientific production of Engineering indexed to Scopus .It was concluded that from the years of 2005 with the Innovation Law there was a boost in these indices making It possible to understand that the numbers of articles began to scale a greater use for the production of patents, with emphasis on the South and Southeast universities of the country, although It is still a number that needs greater expressiveness for the country’s future.
Author(s): Carlos Tadeu Santana Tatum, Flávio Ferreira da Conceição Franceschi, Letícia-Maria Macedo Tatum, Jonas Pedro Fabris, Suzana Leitão Russo
Organization(s): Federal University of Sergipe
Source: Revista GEINTEC
Patents are an output of the level of innovation of a company or region. Patent quantitative studies are performed by simply counting the number of these documents. For the qualitative evaluation, there is a certain consensus among the authors to consider the citations as the most adequate indicator. However, this indicator presents several problems regarding its correct interpretation. In the present study, in order to avoid the typical citation interpretation biases, a precise methodology is presented. As an illustrative example, we present a comparative study of the quality of patents in technological sectors of the Basque Country region over the period 1991–2011.
Author(s): J. Gavilanes-Trapote, Ernesto Cilleruelo-Carrasco, I. Etxeberria-Agiriano, Gaizka Garechana, Alejandro Rodríguez Andara
Organization(s): University of the Basque Country
Source: Engineering Digital Transformation. Lecture Notes in Management and Industrial Engineering. Springer, Cham
Business intelligence enables enterprises to make effective and good quality business decisions. In the knowledge economy, patents are seen as strategic assets for companies as they provide a competitive advantage and at the same time ensure the freedom to operate and form the basis for new alliances. Publication or disclosure of intellectual property (IP) strategy based on patent filings is rarely available in the public domain. Because of this, the only way to understand IP strategy is to look at patent filings, analyze them and, based on the trends, deduce strategy. This paper tries to uncover IP strategies of five US and Indian IT companies by analyzing their patent filings. Gathering business intelligence via means of patent analytics can be used to understand the strategies used by companies in advocating their patent portfolio and aligning their business needs with patenting activities. This study reveals that the Indian companies are far behind in protecting their IPs, although they are now on course correction and have started aggressively protecting their inventions. It is also observed that the rival companies in the study are not directly competing with each other in the same technological domain. Different patent filing strategies are used by firms to gain a competitive advantage. Companies make use of disclosure as strategy or try to cover many aspects of a technology in a single patent, thereby signaling their dominance in a technological area and at the same time as they add information.
Author(s): Shabib-Ahmed Shaikh, Tarun Kumar Singhal
Organization(s): Symbiosis International University (SIU), Symbiosis Centre for Management Studies
Source: Journal of Intelligence Studies in Business
The variations in Manufacturing Strategy (MS) definitions create confusion and lead to lack of shared understanding between academic researchers and practitioners on its scope. The purpose of this study is to provide an empirical analysis of the paradox in the difference between academic and industry definitions of MS. Natural Language Processing (NLP) based text mining is used to extract primary elements from the various academic, and industry definitions of MS. Co-word and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) provide empirical support for the grouping into nine primary elements. We posit from the terms evolution analysis that there is a stasis currently faced in academic literature towards MS definition while the industry with its emphasis on ‘context’ has been dynamic. We believe that the proposed approach and results of the present empirical analysis can contribute to overcoming the current challenges to MS design and deployment – imprecise definition leading to its inadequate operationalisation.
Author(s): Sourabh Kulkarni, Priyanka Verma, R. Mukundan
Organization(s): National Institute of Industrial Engineering
Source: International Journal of Production Research
The purpose of this paper is to identify the dimensions of organizational health with the help of existing literature and focus group discussion on organizational health. The study also tries to categorize various antecedents and consequences of organizational health.
Literature review was conducted with limited search word on organizational health using databases like Emerald, Ebsco and Science direct. Focus group discussions were performed at Central Salt and Marine Chemicals Research Institute and National Metallurgical Laboratory – laboratories of Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, an Indian R&D organization. A total of 29 male and 6 female respondents participated in the focus group discussion.
The results showed that various dimensions of organizational health which were found using focus group discussions were in congruence with the literature reviewed on organizational health. The findings of focus group discussion also listed the antecedents and consequences of organizational health in an R&D organization.
The literature presented conflicting views on organizational health construct. The focus group discussion provided clarity on the dimensions of organizational health. An empirical research can be done on organizational health considering dimensions identified during the focus group discussion.
Author(s): Anupama Singh, Sumi Jha
Organization(s): National Institute of Industrial Engineering
Source: Industrial and Commercial Training
The growing importance of destinations as loci for change in tourism systems has led to the recent accelerated growth of destination management and marketing (DMM) research. This paper conducts an integrated exploration of the structure and interconnections, and the dynamics of the recent growth of DMM research in terms of research fronts and trajectories. A quantitative, visualization-rich approach is proposed, based on bibliometric mapping networks comprising DMM-relevant articles extracted from 49 tourism journals published from 2005 to 2016. The results reveal a DMM structure consisting of 10 key clusters. Sustainable development, competitiveness of tourist destinations, destination development and innovation, and ICT/social media are found to have rapidly evolved as research fronts, while the more traditional research clusters on destination perception and tourist decision-making have developed more slowly. Significant interactions can be observed between management- and marketing-oriented research domains. At deeper levels of analysis, more diverse research trajectories stand out, including those focusing on destination governance; knowledge and experience-based analytical frameworks; service-related domains; subjective issues such as emotions, attachment, and identity; destination brand equity; and sustainability. The paper also shows that additional value will come from research that integrates up-to-now distant DMM topics. The results of this study can help policymakers, practitioners, and scholars understand the recent progress in, and the major trends shaping, the DMM research agenda.
Author(s): Alfonso Ávila-Robinson, Naoki Wakabayashi
Organization(s): Kyoto University
Source: Journal of Destination Marketing & Management