This report examines Germany’s research and patent position in four autonomous systems: smart homes, smart factories, autonomous vehicles (non-hostile environments), and autonomous vehicles in hostile environments. Bibliometric analysis of scholarly papers indexed in the Web of Science and patent analysis of documents in Patstat and Derwent Innovation Index (representing patents from more than 40 patent authorities worldwide) are conducted for all records published in the 2002 to 2017 (May) time
period. Results suggest that Germany has great strengths in autonomous systems, particularly in the smart factory and autonomous vehicles domains. German research publications are particularly strong in hard technological areas such as representation, localization, computer vision, and sensor vision. The diversity of research organizations and patenting sectors is another strength of Germany’s. German patents also
benefit from being more science-based and international than those from other comparator nations. On the other hand, Germany has less research publication and patent output in the smart home and autonomous vehicles in hostile environment system domains. Germany is less likely to show strength in data analytic and machine learning areas.
For full-text see https://www.econstor.eu/handle/10419/175556
Author(s): Jan Youtie, Alan Porter, Philip Shapira, Seokkyun Woo, Yayun Huang
Organization(s): Georgia Institute of Technology
Source: Studien zum deutschen Innovationssystem
The excessive emission of flue gas contributes to air pollution, abnormal climate change, global warming, and sea level rises associated with glacial melting. With the ability to utilize NOx as a nitrogen source and to convert solar energy into chemical energy via CO2 fixation, microalgae can potentially reduce air pollution and relax global warming, while also enhancing biomass and biofuel production as well as the production of high-value-added products. This informatics-based review analyzes the trends in the related literature and in patent activity to draw conclusions and to offer a prospective view on the developments of microalgae for industrial flue gas biosequestration. It is revealed that in recent years, microalgal research for industrial flue gas biosequestration has started to attract increasing attention and has now developed into a hot research topic, although it is still at a relatively early stage, and needs more financial and policy support in order to better understand microalgae and to develop an economically viable process. In comparison with onsite microalgal CO2 capture, microalgae-based biological DeNOx appears to be a more realistic and attractive alternative that could be applied to NOx treatment.
Author(s): Xi Zhu, Junfeng Rong, Hui Chen, Chenliu He, Wensheng Hu, Qiang Wang
Organization(s): Chinese Academy of Sciences, SINOPEC Research Institute of Petroleum Processing, Hubei University of Technology
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
In this study, we combine the specialization scores for publications and patents (the latter is a new indicator of cross-disciplinary engagement) to achieve more comprehensive navigation of the innovation trajectory of a technology. The patent specialization score draws upon counterpart research publication indicator concepts to measure patent diversity. Two nano-based technologies—Nano-enabled drug delivery (NEDD) and Graphene—provide contrasting explorations of the behavior of this indicator, alongside research publication indicators. Results show distinctive patterns of the two technologies and for the respective publication and patent indicators. NEDD research, as evidenced by publication and citation patterns, engages highly diverse research fields. In contrast, NEDD development, as reflected in patent International Patent Classifications (IPCs), concentrates on relatively closely associated fields. Graphene presents the opposite picture, with closely linked disciplines contributing to research, but much more diverse fields of application for its patents. We suggest that analyzing the field diversity of research publications and patents together, employing both specialization scores, can offer fruitful insights into innovation trajectories. Such information can contribute to technology and innovation management and policy for such emerging technologies.
Author(s): Seokbeom Kwon, Alan Porter, Jan Youtie
Organization(s): Georgia Institute of Technology
In the absence of a governance framework for climate engineering technologies such as solar radiation management (SRM), the practices of scientific research and intellectual property acquisition can de facto shape the development of the field. It is therefore important to make visible emerging patterns of research and patenting, which we suggest can effectively be done using bibliometric methods. We explore the challenges in defining the boundary of climate engineering, and set out the research strategy taken in this study. A dataset of 825 scientific publications on climate engineering between 1971 and 2013 was identified, including 193 on SRM; these are analysed in terms of trends, institutions, authors and funders. For our patent dataset, we identified 143 first filings directly or indirectly related to climate engineering technologies—of which 28 were related to SRM technologies—linked to 910 family members. We analyse the main patterns discerned in patent trends, applicants and inventors. We compare our own findings with those of an earlier bibliometric study of climate engineering, and show how our method is consistent with the need for transparency and repeatability, and the need to adjust the method as the field develops. We conclude that bibliometric monitoring techniques can play an important role in the anticipatory governance of climate engineering.
Full-text available at http://rsta.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/372/2031/20140065.full
Author(s): P. Oldham, B. Szerszynski, J. Stilgoe, C. Brown, B. Eacott, A. Yuille
Organization(s): Lancaster University and University College London
Source: Philosophical Transactions A
Nobel Laureates in Physiology or Medicine who received the Prize between 1969 and 2011 are compared to a matched group of scientists to examine productivity, impact, coauthorship and international collaboration patterns embedded within research networks. After matching for research domain, h-index, and year of first of publication, we compare bibliometric statistics and network measures. We find that the Laureates produce fewer papers but with higher average citations. The Laureates also produce more sole-authored papers both before and after winning the Prize. The Laureates have a lower number of coauthors across their entire careers than the matched group, but are equally collaborative on average. Further, we find no differences in international collaboration patterns. The Laureates coauthor network reveals significant differences from the non-Laureate network. Laureates are more likely to build bridges across a network when measuring by average degree, density, modularity, and communities. Both the Laureate and non-Laureate networks have “small world” properties, but the Laureates appear to exploit “structural holes” by reaching across the network in a brokerage style that may add social capital to the network. The dynamic may be making the network itself highly attractive and selective. These findings suggest new insights into the role “star scientists” in social networks and the production of scientific discoveries.
Author(s): Caroline S. Wagner , Edwin Horlings, Travis A. Whetsell, Pauline Mattsson, and Katarina Nordqvist
Organization(s): Battelle Center for Science and Technology Policy, Ohio State University; Rathenau Institute
Source: PLoS One http://www.plosone.org/article/Authors/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0134164
The practice of using technology monitoring to keep track of technological advances is increasingly valued, and its systematic use is understood as essential to business in the new knowledge economy. The structuring of the technological monitoring process has become a growing need for organizations to keep up with the significant and rapid changes of technology in their core business and to better understand its business impact in order to support the decision‐making process of companies. An effective technology monitoring process should be based on a company’s business needs and on the information required for the fitting to strategic guidelines. This encompasses the right selection of databases, the establishment of the search strategy and keywords to be applied, the screening of the retrieved information, the analysis and consolidation of this information, and the right format and display of the relevant data and future trends to help the management decision. Photovoltaic solar energy reached the capacity of 139 GW in 2013, being an expanding market with a high number of government funding projects in the United States and in the European Union. Therefore, a survey was carried out about the new technologies and related business scenarios for this kind of power generation, using technology monitoring tools. Energy generation via photovoltaic cells has been known for a long time, since the Becquerel studies in the XIX century. Solar photovoltaic energy enables the generation of distributed electric energy, preventing long transmission and distribution lines, besides being a silent energy source that can be easily integrated into buildings without the need of additional installation areas; for these reasons, its application is being fostered by government programs. The main step of the technology monitoring methodology is discussed, and the peculiarities and difficulties encountered in the process are pointed out. A survey of the scientific and technological developments in this area of knowledge was carried out, using patents and scientific papers with the time frame from the beginning of 2008 to the end of 2013. The lessons learned in this process and the major facilitating factors and difficulties for the retrieval, screening and analysis of the information collected are reported.
Author(s): Luiz Fernando Leite , Flavia Maria Lins Mendes, and Suzanne De Oliveira Rodrigues Schumacher
Organization: Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
Source: IAMOT 2015 Conference Proceedings http://iamot2015.com/2015proceedings/documents/P310.pdf
- Microalgal biofuel studies between 1900 and mid-2015 were analyzed informatically.
- Burst interest since 2006–2012 stimulated mass culture and biotechnology studies.
- Unremitting study and investment is expected for better understanding of microalgae.
- Integrated application of energy microalgae could be a possible solution.
- Recent advances of approaches to bypass the production bottleneck were reviewed.
Microalgae have reported to be one of the most promising feedstock for biofuel production. To obtain a comprehensive and systematic overview of the current state of microalgal research, particularly microalgal biofuel research, we retrieved and analyzed manuscripts and patents related to this topic and published between 1900 and mid-2015. We found that there was a burst in microalgal biofuel research from 2006 to 2011 that significantly stimulated the development of microalgal biotechnology for the production of high value-added commodities and for environmental applications and microalgal mass culturing, in an attempt to make the entire process of biofuel production economically viable for industrialization. However, a lag in basic microalgal research has kept production costs high, resulting in a decline in investments, funding, and research efforts in the fields of microalgal biofuel production, microalgal biotechnology, and mass culturing since 2012. Based on a review of the challenges/problems of microalgae biofuel production and recent advances of their solution, the perspective view of the future R&D needs and trends were proposed. To bypass the price bottleneck of microalgae-based biofuel production, it has been proposed that energy-producing microalgal biotechnological applications be synergistically combined with microalgal biofuel production. Future investments and funding will most likely be directed toward basic studies that aim to elucidate the microorganisms’ characteristics and toward the development of microalgal biotechnology and its environmental applications, which have potential economic and social benefits. This review represents a theoretical reference for both algal researchers and decision makers regarding the future directions of microalgal research, particularly that involving microalgal-based biofuel production.
Author(s): Hui Chen, Tian Qiu, Junfeng Rong, Chenliu He, and Qiang Wang
Organization(s): Chinese Academy of Sciences
Source: Applied Energy
The transition of energy systems moving from non-renewable fossil-nuclear to renewable sources is a key challenge of climate mitigation and sustainable development. Green energy technologies can contribute to solutions of global problems such as climate change, growth of energy consumption, depletion of natural resources, negative environmental impacts, and energy security. In this article the prospective directions of technology development in green energy are studied and analyzed using a combination of qualitative and quantitative methods. Qualitative research involves participation of key experts in the field of green energy, while quantitative analysis includes collecting and processing data from different information sources (scientific publications, patents, news, Foresight projects, conferences, projects of international organizations, dissertations, and presentations) with a help of Vantage Point software. In addition, key challenges for green energy as well as its relationships with other technological and non-technological areas are identified and briefly described on the basis of expert and analytical results.
Author(s): S. Filippov, N. Mikova, and A. Sokolova
Organization(s): Energy Research Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences and Higher School of Economics
Source: International Journal of Social Ecology and Sustainable Development (IJSESD)
The impacts of international collaboration on research performance have been extensively explored in the last two decades. Most research, however, focuses on quantity and citation-based indicators. Utilizing the turnover of keywords, this study develops an integrative approach tracking and visualizing the shift of the research stream and tests it within the context of U.S.-China collaboration in nanotechnology. Continue reading Tracing the footprint of knowledge spillover: Evidence from U.S.-China Collaboration in Nanotechnology
This research aims to examine scientific and technological trends of developments in nanocellulose based on scientometric and patent indicators obtained from the Science Citation Index and Derwent Innovations Index in 2001-2010. Continue reading Assessing nanocellulose developments using science and technology indicators