Category Archives: ST&I policy

Tracing the knowledge-building dynamics in new stem cell technologies through techno-scientific networks

This study assesses the knowledge-building dynamics of emerging technologies, their participating country-level actors, and their interrelations. We examine research on induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells, a recently discovered stem cell species. Compared to other studies, our approach conflates the totality of publications and patents of a field, and their references, into single “techno-scientific networks” across intellectual bases (IB) and research fronts (RF). Diverse mapping approaches—co-citation, direct citation, and bibliographic coupling networks—are used, driven by the problems tackled by iPS cell researchers. Besides the study of the field of iPS cells as a whole, we assessed the roles of relevant countries in terms of “knowledge exploration,” “knowledge nurturing,” “knowledge exploitation,” and cognitive content. The results show that a fifth of nodes in IB and edges in RF interconnect science (S) and technology (T). S and T domains tell different, yet complementing stories: S overstresses upstream activities, and T captures the increasing influential role of application domains and general technologies. Both S and T reflect the path-dependent nature of iPS cells in embryonic stem cell technologies. Building on the feedback between IB and RF, we examine the dominating role of the United States. Japan, the pioneer, falls behind in quantity, yet its global influence remains intact. New entrants, such as China, are advancing rapidly, yet, cognitively, the bulk of efforts are still upstream. Our study demonstrates the need for bibliometric assessment studies to account for S&T co-evolution. The multiple data source-based, integrated bibliometric approaches of this study are initial efforts toward this direction.

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11192-017-2436-5

Author(s): Alfonso Ávila-Robinson, Shintaro Sengoku
Organization(s): Kyoto University, Tokyo Institute of Technology
Source: Scientometrics
Year: 2017

Scientometric Study on Deep Learning for Human Decision Support (full-text)

In order to assist with long-term R&D planning and the prioritization of research topics, this scientometric study was commissioned by the Department of National Defence of Canada (DRDC) to provide a high level overview of worldwide research activity in the field of deep learning for human decision support. This study will assist DRDC in uncovering and understanding the potential impact of new research on future defence and security capabilities and operations. In all, 8,565 references to publications from 2011-2016 were retrieved and analyzed using text mining software and a variety of visualization tools to identify top architectures, emerging trends, key players, collaboration networks, application areas and limitations.

FULL-TEXT AVAILABLE at
http://cradpdf.drdc-rddc.gc.ca/PDFS/unc269/p805244_A1b.pdf

Author(s): Erica Wiseman
Organization: National Research Council of Canada / Knowledge Management (NRC-KM)
Source: NRC-KM Strategic Technical Insights
Year: 2017

A bibliometric review of nitrogen research in eutrophic lakes and reservoirs

The global application of nitrogen is far greater than phosphorus, and it is widely involved in the eutrophication of lakes and reservoirs. We used a bibliometric method to quantitatively and qualitatively evaluate nitrogen research in eutrophic lakes and reservoirs to reveal research developments, current research hotspots and emerging trends in this area. A total of 2695 articles in the past 25 years from the online database of the Scientific Citation Index Expended (SCI-Expanded) were analyzed for publication output, authors, institutions, countries, journals and keywords. Articles in this area increased exponentially from 1991 to 2015. Although the USA was the most productive country over the past 25 years, China achieved the top position in terms of yearly publications after 2010. The most active keywords related to nitrogen in the past 25 years included phosphorus, nutrients, sediment, chlorophyll-a, carbon, phytoplankton, cyanobacteria, water quality, modeling, and stable isotopes, based on analysis within 5-year intervals from 1991 to 2015 as well as the entire past 25 years. In addition, researchers have drawn increasing attention to denitrification, climate change, and internal loading. Future trends in this area should focus on: (1) nutrient amounts, ratios, and major nitrogen sources leading to eutrophication; (2) nitrogen transformation and the bioavailability of different nitrogen forms; (3) nitrogen budget, mass balance model, control, and management; (4) ecosystem responses to nitrogen enrichment and reduction, as well as the relationships between these responses; and (5) interactions between nitrogen and other stressors (e.g., light intensity, carbon, phosphorus, toxic contaminants, climate change, and hydrological variations) in terms of eutrophication.

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1001074217312718

Author(s): Xiaolong Yao, Yunlin Zhang, Lu Zhang, Yongqiang Zhou
Organization(s): Chinese Academy of Sciences
Source: Journal of Environmental Sciences
Year: 2017

Research development, current hotspots, and future directions of water research based on MODIS images: a critical review with a bibliometric analysis

Water is essential for life as it provides drinking water and food for humans and animals. Additionally, the water environment provides habitats for numerous species and plays an important role in hydrological, nutrient, and carbon cycles. Among the existing natural resources on Earth’s surface, water is the most extensive as it covers more than 70% of the Earth. To gather a comprehensive understanding of the focus of past, present, and future directions of remote sensing water research, we provide an alternative perspective on water research using moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) imagery by conducting a comparative quantitative and qualitative analysis of research development, current hotspots, and future directions using a bibliometric analysis. Our study suggests that there has been a rapid growth in the scientific outputs of water research using MODIS imagery over the past 15 years compared to other popular satellites around the world. The analysis indicated that Remote Sensing of Environment was the most active journal, and “remote sensing,” “imaging science photographic technology,” “environmental sciences ecology,” “meteorology atmospheric sciences,” and “geology” are the top 5 most popular subject categories. The Chinese Academy of Sciences was the most productive institution with a total of 477 papers, and Hu CM (Chinese) was the most productive author with 76 papers. A keyword analysis indicated that “vegetation index,” “evapotranspiration,” and “phytoplankton” were the most active research topics throughout the study period. In addition, it is predicted that more attention will be paid to research on climate change and phenology in the future. Based on the keyword analysis and in consideration of current environmental problems, more studies should focus on the following three aspects: (1) develop methods suitable for data assimilation to fully explain climate or phenological phenomena at continental or global scales rather than at local scales; (2) accurately predict the effect of global change and human activities on evapotranspiration and the water cycle; and (3) determine the evolutionary process of the water environment (i.e., water quality, macrophytes, cyanobacteria, etc.), ascertaining its dominant factors and driving mechanisms. By focusing on these three aspects, researchers will be able to provide timely monitoring and evaluation of water quality and its response to global change and human activities.

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11356-017-9107-1

Author(s): Yibo Zhang, Yunlin Zhang, Kun Shi, Xiaolong Yao
Organization(s): Chinese Academy of Sciences
Source: Environmental Science and Pollution Research
Year: 2017

Organizational Factors for Development of Sectoral Science, Technology and Innovation System: Venezuelan Experience in Biotechnology (full-text)

Biotechnology is a millenary science, however, was in the last 60 years which reached its
“peak/top” with the advances in the techniques for manipulating living beings. About your multidisciplinary nature, in the countries where it was considered a strategic element for technological innovation, many systems of organization have been developed for their own development. In order to analyze preliminary organizational factors of developing a National Innovation System for Biotechnology in Venezuela, we conducted this study
using interviews and electronic questionnaires with different actors in the system of R&D: universities researchers, funding agencies, representatives of government and companies. This paper suggests some strength such as Venezuelan tradition in Biotechnology and high level of human capital qualification. Biotechnology in Venezuela was mainly developed in public research institutions such as universities and government centers, with two priority areas: agriculture and life science. However, there is a long way forward before Biotechnology is incorporated in the desired economic and social development, such as: the development of mechanisms for continued government funding and venture capital to create start-ups enterprises, strengthening strategies links between universities and companies and networking, and the development of a specific legislation for Biotechnology.

For full-text, https://www.arca.fiocruz.br/bitstream/icict/18172/3/MarcioOliveira_IJMSR_2017_v5n2.pdf

Author(s): Maria de Fátima Ebole Santana, Marcio Sacramento de Oliveira, Rosalba Gómez Martínez, Ângela Maria G. Martino, Nei Pereira Jr., Adelaide Maria de Souza
Antunes
Organization(s): Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Oswaldo Cruz Foundation (Fiocruz), Polytechnic School of Health Joaquim Venancio, National Experimental University of Francisco de Miranda
Source: International Journal of Managerial Studies and Research
Year: 2017

Effects of innovation management system standardization on firms: evidence from text mining annual reports

Using a management formula to standardize innovation management can be thought of as deeply contradictory, however, several successful firms in Spain have been certified under the pioneer innovation management standard UNE 166002. This paper analyzes the effects that standardization has in the attitudes and values as regard to innovation for a sample of firms by text-mining their corporate disclosures. Changes in the relevance of the concepts, co-word networks and emotion analysis have been employed to conclude that the effects of certification on the corporate behavior about innovation are coincident with the open innovation and transversalization concepts that UNE 166002 promotes.

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11192-017-2345-7

Author(s): Gaizka Garechana, Rosa Río-Belver, Iñaki Bildosola, Marisela Rodríguez Salvador
Organization(s): University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU, Tecnológico de Monterrey
Source: Scientometrics
Year: 2017

Annual reports have been text-mined using the NLP tools provided by Vantage Point software to capture the concepts occurring in the vicinity of SI terms and the changes in concepts and their relationships, in addition to emotions, have been analyzed.

Science-technology-industry correlative indicators for policy targeting on emerging technologies: exploring the core competencies and promising industries of aspirant economies

This paper seeks to contemplate a sequence of steps in connecting the fields of science, technology and industrial products. A method for linking different classifications (WoS–IPC–ISIC concordance) is proposed. The ensuing concordance tables inherit the roots of Grupp’s perspective on science, technology, product and market. The study contextualized the linking process as it can be instrumental for policy planning and technology targeting. The presented method allows us to postulate the potential development of technology in science and industrial products. The proposed method and organized concordance tables are intended as a guiding tool for policy makers to study the prospects of a technology or industry of interest. Two perceived high potential technologies—traditional medicine and ICT—that were sought by two aspirant economies—Hong Kong and Malaysia—are considered as case studies for the proposed method. The selected cases provide us the context of what technological research is being pursued for both fundamental knowledge and new industries. They enable us to understand the context of policy planning and targeting for sectoral and regional innovation systems. While we note the constraints of using joint-publishing and joint-patenting data to study the core competencies of developing economies and their potential for development, we realize that the proposed method enables us to highlight the gaps between science and technology and the core competencies of the selected economies, as well as their prospects in terms of technology and product development. The findings provide useful policy implications for further development of the respective cases.

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11192-017-2319-9

Author(s): Chan-Yuan Wong, Hon-Ngen Fung
Organization(s): University of Malaya
Source: Scientometrics
Year: 2017

The global objective of sustainable development up to 2030 and the BRICS: the analysis of the feasibility and effectiveness of the synergies

The article contains analysis of renewed Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) for the period up to 2030, characteristic of the development of cooperation among BRICS countries during Russia’s chairmanship in the union. It also relates to specific features of interaction of BRICS countries on environmental SDGs. Special attention is paid to the issue of climate change and its consequences in light of the decisions of Paris summit of 2015. In particular the article focuses on goals and tasks of BRICS countries related to climate change and response to it, decreasing emissions of greenhouse gases. The authors also consider the issues of and prospects for using renewable energy sources by BRICS countries, development of cooperation within the framework of BRICS Initiative on research and innovation .Qualitative approach is based on the literature review and consultations with the experts, while quantitative analysis includes collecting the news from Factiva database and processing it in Vantage Point software using bibliometric analysis and natural language processing.

https://publications.hse.ru/en/chapters/193349639

Author(s): Korobov NL, Terentyev AA
Organization: National Research University Higher School of Economics
Source: BRICS Countries: development strategies and mechanisms for coordination and cooperation in a changing world. Proceedings of the First International Scientific and Practical Conference, INION, 2-3 November 2015
Year:
2016

A taxonomy of small firm technology commercialization

This article proposes a taxonomy of business models used by small, highly innovative firms focused on technology commercialization. Such firms disproportionately contribute to technological change in the US economy. The firms operate across industries and use a variety of technology platforms. Exploratory factor analysis of keyword occurrence on firm websites generated a taxonomy comprising: research organization; development stage biosciences; highly specialized component supplier; specialized subcontractor; product solutions providers; and service solutions providers. This framework provides entrepreneurs and policy makers with an overview of new technology commercialization paths tailored to small, innovative firms.

http://icc.oxfordjournals.org/content/25/3/371.abstract?keytype=ref&ijkey=1U2ith4ApM9iH7y

Author(s): Dirk Libaers, Diana Hicks, and Alan L. Porter
Organization(s): University of Missouri, Georgia Institute of Technology
Source: Industrial and Corporate Change
Year: 2016

Early social science research about Big Data

Recent emerging technology policies seek to diminish negative impacts while equitably and responsibly accruing and distributing benefits. Social scientists play a role in these policies, but relatively little quantitative research has been undertaken to study how social scientists inform the assessment of emerging technologies. This paper addresses this gap by examining social science research on ‘Big Data’, an emerging technology of wide interest. This paper analyzes a dataset of fields extracted from 488 social science and humanities papers written about Big Data. Our focus is on understanding the multi-dimensional nature of societal assessment by examining the references upon which these papers draw. We find that eight sub-literatures are important in framing social science research about Big Data. These results indicate that the field is evolving from general sociological considerations toward applications issues and privacy concerns. Implications for science policy and technology assessment of societal implications are discussed.

http://spp.oxfordjournals.org/content/early/2016/06/23/scipol.scw021.abstract

Author(s): Jan Youtie, Alan L. Porter and Ying Huang
Organization(s): Georgia Institute of Technology, Beijing Institute of Technology
Source: Science and Public Policy
Year:
2016