The internet provides a plethora of information, including concerning health issues. The aim of this paper is to identify online recommendations of paediatric dentistry associations of the Americas (PDAAs) regarding breastfeeding practices, weaning, sugar introduction and initiating oral hygiene. Websites of PDAAs were access to record recommendations/questions (Q) relevant to early childhood that specifically covered issues about exclusive breastfeeding‐Q1, indications of artificial breastfeeding‐Q2, when and how should indicate weaning‐Q3 and Q4, respectively, association of breast milk and dental caries‐Q5, the period recommended for starting oral hygiene and how to go about introducing it‐Q6 and Q7, respectively, and guidance on the introduction of sugar‐Q8. Similarity/dissimilarity frequencies between the associations (Euclidean distances) were calculated. From 35 countries on the two American continents, 21 associations were affiliated with the International Association of Paediatric Dentistry and/or the Latin American Pediatric Dentistry Association, while eight did not have websites. Higher(p<0.05) dissimilarities for Q6(68.2%), Q7(72.7%) and Q8(62.1%) were observed. Results were similar for Q1 and Q5(p>0.05). No association mentioned Q3 or Q4 responses, while Q7 was the most frequently discussed issue. Not all of the investigated issues are mentioned on websites of PDAAs, potentially stymieing efforts by both the layperson and health professional to gather information.
Author(s): Aline Gomes Silva Cerqueira, Marcela Baraúna Magno, Fernanda Barja‐Fidalgo, José Vicente Gomila, Lucianne Cople Maia, Andrea Fonseca‐Gonçalves
Organization(s): Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro State University, Polytechnic University of Valencia
Source: International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry
This study aims to address how the 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake influenced knowledge generation and diffusion compared to the research stemming from the 1989 Loma Prieta Earthquake in the United States and the 1995 Hanshin Awaji Earthquake in Japan, for the three countries are exposed to high seismic risk. The findings show that (1) regarding research quantity, the influence of the Wenchuan Earthquake on disaster-related knowledge generation is just beginning compared with the gradual decreases in research on the other earthquakes; (2) regarding disciplinary development, the proportion of studies relating to the Wenchuan Earthquake in natural sciences and engineering technology is gradually decreasing, while the proportion of studies in medical science, social sciences and economics is increasing; (3) the quantity of earthquake-related studies is not solely related to the influence of a specific disaster but associated with the national financial support offered by the affected country. One reason why China experiences the high research output is that Chinese national finance strongly supports such research, similar to the United States and Japan. This phenomenon corresponds with the fact that the major research institutions in China are national institutions rather than universities. Finally, (4) interdisciplinary research on the Wenchuan Earthquake mainly involves interactions between natural sciences and engineering technology. Interactions between other disciplines need to be enhanced. Thus, this research argues that, although disaster knowledge generation and diffusion is imbalanced, the multidimensional nature of earthquakes has been recognized in the literature.
Author(s): Qiang Zhang, Qibin Lu, Xuanting Ye, Shiling Xu, Leesa K. Lin, Qian Ye, An Zeng
Organization(s): Beijing Normal University, Tsinghua University, Beijing Institute of Technology, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine
Source: Safety Science
Despite the mounting threats that tropical ecosystems face, conservation in the tropics remains severely under‐researched relative to temperate systems. Efforts to address this knowledge gap have so far largely failed to analyze the relationship between an author’s choice of study site and that author’s country of origin. We examined factors that motivate both foreign and domestic scientists to conduct research in tropical countries, based on a sample of nearly 3000 tropical conservation research articles. Many barriers that have historically deterred foreign research effort appear to have been overcome, although US scientists still respond negatively to safety concerns and distance. The productivity of local scientists is affected by corruption and lack of institutional support. Both foreign and in‐country scientists are increasingly working in places with more listed threatened species, but many regions still lack adequate conservation research. Although foreign scientists could be attracted to less‐studied areas through targeted grants, the long‐term solution must be to train and employ more local scientists.
https://doi.org/10.1002/fee.2146 for FULL-TEXT https://flore.unifi.it/retrieve/handle/2158/1185963/461923/Segovia_et_al-2020-Frontiers_in_Ecology_and_the_Environment.pdf
Author(s): Ana L. Reboredo Segovia, Donato Romano, Paul R. Armsworth
Organization(s): Boston University, University of Florence, University of Tennessee
Source: Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment
Since outbreaks in 2003, avian influenza has received a considerable amount of funding and become a controversial science policy issue in various respects. Like in many other global and multidisciplinary societal problems fraught with high levels of uncertainty, a variety of perspectives have emerged over how to “tackle” avian influenza and public voices have expressed concern over how research funds are being allocated. In this article, we document if and how research agendas are being informed by public policy debates. We use qualitative and quantitative approaches to examine the relations between expectations of outcomes of public science and the existing research landscape. Interviews with a cross-section of stakeholders reveal a wide range of perspectives and values associated with the nature and objectives of existing research avenues. We find that the landscape of public avian influenza research is not directly driven by expectations of societal outcomes. Instead, it is shaped by three institutional drivers: pharmaceutical industry priorities, publishing and public research funding pressures, and the mandates of science-based policy or public health organizations. These insights suggest that, in research prioritization, funding agencies should embrace a broad perspective of research governance that explicitly considers underlying institutional drivers. Deliberative approaches in public priority setting might help to make agendas more plural and diverse and thus more responsive to the contested and uncertain nature of avian influenza research.
Author(s): Matthew L.Wallace, Ismael Ràfols
Organization(s): Universitat Politècnica de València
Source: Research Policy
South-south collaboration on health and development research is a critical mechanism for social and economic progress. It allows sharing and replicating experiences to find a “southern solution” to meet shared health challenges, such as access to adequate HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment. This study aimed to generate evidence on the dynamics of south-south collaboration in HIV/AIDS research, which could ultimately inform stakeholders on the progress and nature of collaboration towards increased research capacities in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC).
Bibliometric and social network analysis methods were used to assess the 10-year (2006–2015) scientific contribution of LMIC, through the analysis of scientific publications on HIV/AIDS prevention and/or treatment. Five dimensions oriented the study: knowledge production, co-authorship analysis, research themes mapping, research types classification and funding sources.
Publications involving LMIC have substantially increased overtime, despite small expression of south-south collaboration. Research themes mapping revealed that publication focus varied according to collaborating countries’ income categories, from diagnosis, opportunistic infections and laboratory-based research (LMIC single or LMIC-LMIC) to human behavior and healthcare, drug therapy and mother to child transmission (LMIC-HIC). The analysis of research types showed that south-south collaborations frequently targeted social sciences issues. Funding agencies acknowledged in south-south collaboration also showed diverse focus: LMIC-based funders tended to support basic biomedical research whereas international/HIC-based funders seem to cover predominantly social sciences-oriented research.
Although the global environment has fostered an increasing participation of LMIC in collaborative learning models, south-south collaboration on HIV/AIDS prevention and/or treatment research seemed to be lower than expected, stressing the need for strategies to foster these partnerships. The evidence presented in this study can be used to strengthen a knowledge platform to inform future policy, planning and funding decisions, contributing to the development of enhanced collaboration and a priority research agenda for LMICs.
For full-text see https://doi.org/10.1186/s12992-018-0341-1
Author(s): Bruna de Paula Fonseca e Fonseca, Priscila Costa Albuquerque, Ed Noyons, Fabio Zicker
Organization(s): Oswaldo Cruz Foundation (Fiocruz), Leiden University
Source: Globalization and Health
Using a management formula to standardize innovation management can be thought of as deeply contradictory, however, several successful firms in Spain have been certified under the pioneer innovation management standard UNE 166002. This paper analyzes the effects that standardization has in the attitudes and values as regard to innovation for a sample of firms by text-mining their corporate disclosures. Changes in the relevance of the concepts, co-word networks and emotion analysis have been employed to conclude that the effects of certification on the corporate behavior about innovation are coincident with the open innovation and transversalization concepts that UNE 166002 promotes.
Author(s): Gaizka Garechana, Rosa Río-Belver, Iñaki Bildosola, Marisela Rodríguez Salvador
Organization(s): University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU, Tecnológico de Monterrey
Annual reports have been text-mined using the NLP tools provided by Vantage Point software to capture the concepts occurring in the vicinity of SI terms and the changes in concepts and their relationships, in addition to emotions, have been analyzed.
The impact of national defense research and development spending on overall innovation depends on the extent to which the knowledge and technologies generated by defense funding diffuse. This article uses an original data-set of patents assigned to defense-servicing organizations to investigate the diffusion of military technologies. Contrary to the predictions of the prevailing scholarship, I find no difference in the rate of diffusion between civilian and military technologies. Neither do military technologies assigned to government agencies diffuse at different rates than those assigned to firms. The overall technological experience of the patent assignee is found to be a positive predictor of the diffusion of military technologies. The effect of the prevailing intellectual property rights regime is ambivalent: when US patents are included in the sample, the effect of patent protection is positive, when the US is excluded, the effect is either non-significant or negative depending on the model specification that is utilized.
Author(s): Jon Schmid
Organization: Georgia Institute of Technology
Source: Defence and Peace Economics
This paper summarizes the 10-year experiences of the Program in Science, Technology, and Innovation Policy (STIP) at Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech) in support of the Center for Nanotechnology in Society at Arizona State University (CNS-ASU) in understanding, characterizing, and conveying the development of nanotechnology research and application. This work was labeled “Research and Innovation Systems Assessment” or (RISA) by CNS-ASU.
RISA concentrates on identifying and documenting quantifiable aspects of nanotechnology, including academic, commercial/industrial, and government nanoscience and nanotechnology (nanotechnologies) activity, research, and projects. RISA at CNS-ASU engaged in the first systematic attempt of its kind to define, characterize, and track a field of science and technology. A key element to RISA was the creation of a replicable approach to bibliometrically defining nanotechnology. Researchers in STIP, and beyond, could then query the resulting datasets to address topical areas ranging from basic country and regional concentrations of publications and patents, to findings about social science literature, environmental, health, and safety research and usage, to study corporate entry into nanotechnology, and to explore application areas as special interests arose. Key features of the success of the program include:
- Having access to “large-scale” R&D abstract datasets
- Analytical software
- A portfolio that balances innovative long-term projects, such as webscraping to understand nanotechnology developments in small and medium-sized companies, with research characterizing the emergence of nanotechnology that more readily produces articles
- Relationships with diverse networks of scholars and companies working in the nanotechnology science and social science domains
- An influx of visiting researchers
- A strong core of students with social science, as well as some programming background
- A well-equipped facility and management by the principals through weekly problem-solving meetings, mini-deadlines, and the production journal articles rather than thick final reports.
Author(s): Jan Youtie, Alan Porter, Philip Shapira, Nils Newman
Organization: Georgia Institute of Technology
Source: OECD Blue Sky Forum on Science and Innovation Indicators
Emphasizing the university research center model, from 2009 to 2014 the US Department of Energy (DOE) funded a first round of over 40 Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRCs) spread out among 100 institutions. Early in its implementation, however, the EFRC model received criticism from scholars warning that the arrangements of the EFRCs did not provide adequate governance structures for coordinating research efforts. In this article, we seek to begin answering a call for ‘systematic and rigorous study of the implementation of EFRCs’ by studying a sample of five EFRCs and their individual members. We find that despite lacking formal mechanisms for coordinating research, EFRCs increase coauthorships among EFRC members, especially new coauthorships. Moreover, EFRC members’ research quality increases after each EFRC is formed. Through negative-binomial regression analysis on individual researcher outcomes, we find that stronger preexisting networks increase coauthorship among EFRC members. This finding supports the idea that preexisting research collaboration networks are indicative of research coordination mechanisms that researchers have discovered or established for themselves prior to becoming members of a research center. We posit that new research centers may leverage research coordination mechanisms embedded in preexisting coauthorship relations, rather than imposing new research coordination mechanisms.
Author(s): Alexander M. Smith, Samson Yuxiu Lai, Jonah Bea-Taylor, Rebecca B. M. Hill and Nabil Kleinhenz
Organization: Georgia Institute of Technology
Source: Research Evaluation
In this paper, we study the influence of path dependencies on the development of an emerging technology in a transitional economy. Our focus is the development of nanotechnology in Russia in the period between 1990 and 2012. By examining outputs, publication paths and collaboration patterns, we identify a series of factors that help to explain Russia’s limited success in leveraging its ambitious national nanotechnology initiative. The analysis highlights four path-dependent tendencies of Russian nanotechnology research: publication pathways and the gatekeeping role of the Russian Academy of Sciences; increasing geographical and institutional centralisation of nanotechnology research; limited institutional diffusion; and patterns associated with the internationalisation of Russian research. We discuss policy implications related to path dependence, nanotechnology research in Russia and to the broader reform of the Russian science system.
Full-text available http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11192-016-1916-3/fulltext.html
Author(s): Maria Karaulova, Abdullah Gök, Oliver Shackleton, Philip Shapira
Organization(s): National Research University Higher School of Economics, University of Manchester