This paper seeks to understand whether a catastrophic and urgent event, such as the first months of the COVID-19 pandemic, accelerates or reverses trends in international collaboration, especially in and between China and the United States. A review of research articles produced in the first months of the COVID-19 pandemic shows that COVID-19 research had smaller teams and involved fewer nations than pre-COVID-19 coronavirus research. The United States and China were, and continue to be in the pandemic era, at the center of the global network in coronavirus related research, while developing countries are relatively absent from early research activities in the COVID-19 period. Not only are China and the United States at the center of the global network of coronavirus research, but they strengthen their bilateral research relationship during COVID-19, producing more than 4.9% of all global articles together, in contrast to 3.6% before the pandemic. In addition, in the COVID-19 period, joined by the United Kingdom, China and the United States continued their roles as the largest contributors to, and home to the main funders of, coronavirus related research. These findings suggest that the global COVID-19 pandemic shifted the geographic loci of coronavirus research, as well as the structure of scientific teams, narrowing team membership and favoring elite structures. These findings raise further questions over the decisions that scientists face in the formation of teams to maximize a speed, skill trade-off. Policy implications are discussed.
For FULL-TEXT go to https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0236307
Author(s): Caroline V. Fry, Xiaojing Cai, Yi Zhang, Caroline S. Wagner
Organization(s): University of Hawai’i at Manoa, The Ohio State University, University of Technology Sydney
Source: PloS One
Technological innovation is a dynamic process that spans the life cycle of an idea, from scientific research to production. Within this process, there are often a few key innovations that significantly impact a technology’s development, and the ability to identify and trace the development of these key innovations comes with a great payoff for researchers and technology managers. In this article, we present a framework for identifying the technology’s main evolutionary pathway. What is unique about this framework is that we introduce new indicators that reflect the connectivity and the modularity in the interior citation network to distinguish between the stages of a technology’s development. We also show how information about a family of patents can be used to build a comprehensive patent citation network. Finally, we apply integrated approaches of main path analysis (MPA)—namely global MPA and global key-route main analysis—for extracting technological trajectories at different technological stages. We illustrate this approach with dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), a low-cost solar cell belonging to the group of thin-film solar cells, contributing to the remarkable growth in the renewable energy industry. The results show how this approach can trace the main development trajectory of a research field and distinguish key technologies to help decision makers manage the technological stages of their innovation processes more effectively.
Author(s): Ying Huang, Fujin Zhu, Alan L. Porter, Yi Zhang, Donghua Zhu, Ying Guo
Organization(s): Wuhan University, Beijing Institute of Technology, Search Technology, University of Technology Sydney, China University of Political Science and Law
Source: IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management
This study aims at identifying potential industry-University-research institution collaborations partners (IURC) efficaciously and analyzes the conditions and dynamics in the IURC process, based on knowledge potential and the knowledge spillover theory. Furthermore, a new identification method is constructed that takes into account the law of scientific research cooperation and economic factors. The method utilizes multisource data, combining bibliometric and econometrics analyses to achieve the network core of the existing collaboration network, and institution competitiveness in the innovation chain. Empirical analysis of the genetic engineering vaccine field shows that throughout the distribution characteristics of creative technologies from different institutions, the analysis based on the innovation chain can identify more complementarities between institutions. Compared to previous studies, this study emulates the real conditions of IURC. The rule of technological innovation can be better revealed, potential partners of IURC can be more easily identified, and the conclusion has a higher value in consultation. In particular, diverse informative indices can assist researchers in deriving appropriate partners for research and development cooperation.
Author(s): Haiyun Xu, Kun Dong, Ling Wei, Chao Wang, Shu Fang
Organization(s): Chengdu Documentation and Information Center, CAS; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences
Source: Proceedings of the 2017 IEEE/ACM International Conference on Advances in Social Networks Analysis and Mining
The recent Zika virus (ZIKAV) epidemics disclosed a major public health threat and a scientific and technological (S&T) challenge. The lessons learned from the S&T response of Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) countries are critical to inform further research and guide scientific investments. The present study aimed to assess how new S&T knowledge produced and disseminated regionally can contribute to address global health challenges. We retrieved 5421 ZIKAV-related publications, revealing a sharp increase from 2015 onwards. LAC countries accounted for 20% of all publications and Brazil was among the top three most central countries in the global network for ZIKAV research. A total of 274 patent families backed up by experimental evidence were retrieved. Only 5% were filed by LAC assignees, all of them based in Brazil. The largest contribution of LAC research was on the clinical manifestations of the ZIKAV infection, along with vector control, which was also the main focus of patents. Our analysis offered a comprehensive overview of ZIKAV’s research and development and showed that (i) LAC countries had a key role in generating and disseminating scientific knowledge on ZIKAV; (ii) LAC countries have expressively contributed to research on ZIKAV clinical manifestations; (iii) the Brazilian scientific community was potentially very effective in knowledge sharing and diffusion in the ZIKAV research network; (iv) Brazil was the single LAC country filing patents, mostly represented by independent inventors and low-tech patents. The paper advocates the need for a continued interdisciplinary approach to improve LAC countries ability to prevent, prepare for and control future outbreaks.
For Full-Text https://bmcpublichealth.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12889-019-6842-x
Author(s): Alice Machado-Silva, Camila Guindalini, Fernanda Lopes Fonseca, Marcus Vinicius Pereira-Silva, Bruna de Paula Fonseca
Source: BMC Public Health